Hawthorne experiment research paper

Work-group norms affect productivity. More Recent Research on the Hawthorne Effect Later research into the Hawthorne effect has suggested that the original results may have been overstated. Lloyd Warner between and on a group of fourteen men who put together telephone switching equipment.

The results were surprising: productivity increased, but for reasons unrelated to economics. Some of the variables were: Giving two 5-minute breaks after a discussion with them on the best length of timeand then changing to two minute breaks not their preference.

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Productivity increased, but when they received six 5-minute rests, they disliked it and reduced output. And not all of the studies agreed with the Hawthorne effect. These results show that workers were more responsive to the social force of their peer groups than to the control and incentives of management.

Shortening the day by 30 minutes output went up ; shortening it more output per hour went up, but overall output decreased ; returning to the first condition where output peaked.

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In other variations of the experiments, the production also improved when breaks were eliminated entirely and when the workday was lengthened. Providing food during the breaks. In the most famous of the experiments, the focus of the study was to determine if increasing or decreasing the amount of light that workers received would have an effect on how productive workers were during their shifts. He does say that this experiment is about testing overall effect, not testing factors separately. This discovery was a blow to those hoping to apply the behavioral sciences to manipulate workers in the interest of management. Despite this, the term is still often used to refer to changes in behavior that can result from taking part in an experiment. After several years the productivity had risen drastically.

He does say that this experiment is about testing overall effect, not testing factors separately. It was suggested that the productivity gain occurred as a result of the motivational effect on the workers of the interest being shown in them.

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Interpretation and criticism[ edit ] Richard Nisbett has described the Hawthorne effect as "a glorified anecdote", saying that "once you have got the anecdote, you can throw away the data. Detailed observation of the men revealed the existence of informal groups or "cliques" within the formal groups.

In the experiment room they had a supervisor who discussed changes with their productivity.

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The Hawthorne studies: an analysis of critical perspectives,