Toyota, in fact, spends a lot of money under the category of research now. I must confess to you that I've now been doing this for several years, and one of my standard games is to go around and ask people in industry to tell me what systems integration is.
Monsanto is an example of this. If non-manufactured exports are taken out of the picture and only manufactured exports are examined, what is being taken out is crude oil, we see a similar pattern.
The above seems to go well beyond your classification of simple and complex, yet it seems to be critical to the conclusions that you have drawn. What happens, if you're not very careful, is what happened to DuPont in the s see Professor Hounshell's paper in this volume. Many people who are very sensitive about defending the role of research have a tendency to lump this type of engineering into the research category.Aderemi, H. I think very clearly, one of the most important of those categories is clearly the nature of organizational relationships. Although a Toyota executive is said to have stated that Toyota really doesn't do research, I would submit that Toyota's Model T would probably look a lot like Ford's original Model T if it weren't for research in all sorts of areas, fundamental and applied, and that in fact Toyota is probably paying as much attention to research now being done in a variety of industries and academic laboratories as it ever has. That's certainly true in the chemical industry. First, there is urgent need for enterprise-oriented technology transfer units to link the science and technology system with the production system. This deficit remains very large despite the recovery of the U. Acquisition of technological knowledge in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Sweden. Abereijo, I. Even fewer today rely on the venture capital world and some have taken on their own corporate venturing. Determinants of innovation capability in small UK firms: an empirical analysis". We have very good data on packaged software, but people in the software industry keep telling me that there is all kinds of software embedded in hardware. Judith C.
Kash: We put the pharmaceutical industry in the complex process, simple product category. Also the degree of relevance of each of the above sources of technological innovation was identified.Technological change and economic theory. It seems to me that Professor Hounshell's point is the key one. The reason you don't need a patent in the computer chip industry is because the product cycle is only 18 months and the company will be out of the market long before the patent is ever issued. Judith C. Swedish entrepreneurs in manufacturing and their sources of information. The least reported external source was 'the right to use the innovations of others that is, being licensed to use the innovation of others ' and 'the use of consultancy services and information or special services from other firms'. What seemed to us to be the case is that there were very different patterns of innovation that occurred as we studied one technology area and then another. That is, when I ask people what the contribution of research is, I've never had anyone identify market research. Discussion Paper Series No. I find it helpful to split them, because we start with science and we wind up with statistics on technologies. Japan runs a deficit in a single category, aircraft manufacturing.
It seems to me that Professor Hounshell's point is the key one. There's a more important issue as far as I'm concerned.Industrial networks: a new view of reality. However, I have talked to no company that includes market research in their research budget. Paul Anderson, DuPont-Merck Pharmaceuticals: I too was wondering what your definitions were for complex versus simple. I think it is the limitations in the data available to provide those types of measures rather than the realistic system in which we all work. Second, much of what engineers do, which is terribly important in the innovation process, is not research and is not classified as research. Now more than ever before there's a third component to research, and that is market research. The above seems to go well beyond your classification of simple and complex, yet it seems to be critical to the conclusions that you have drawn. Table 2. Many people who are very sensitive about defending the role of research have a tendency to lump this type of engineering into the research category. What less-obvious sources of innovation would you add to this list? Technological change and economic theory.
If a company could not obtain that monopoly, there would be no drug innovation, because there would be no economic benefit resulting from development of a drug. I'm a believer in some sort of sorting by sectors as well; otherwise there are no landmarks.
It can then be presumed that external knowledge acquisition is especially important for innovation in these small and medium firms.
Monsanto, which was one of the major chemical companies, went out of the chemical business in recent years as a result of this.