Both incumbent car manufacturers and many start-ups invested in research. CO2 end product bounds for new autos. These ordinances are nevertheless accompanied with a recognition system.
The Tesla Model S unprecedented battery range no longer forces consumers to trade off fuel efficiency for convenience.
Tesla keeps disputing the traditional auto companies The Economist.
The five forces are the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers, the threat of substitutes, the threat of entry and the rivalry among existing competitors. Needless to say, the automotive industry is big business and it is very probable there are business opportunities that are yet to be exploited.
Also, in certain areas, Tesla employs what it calls Tesla Rangers — mobile technicians who can service vehicles from your house.