The aspects of duty in kants and kirkegaards philosophies

Even though is usually taken to demarcate the point of transition to his mature philosophical period, it still takes a few more years before it fully comes into being, or at least before Kant fully articulates the conception of moral motivation that has us capable of acting from pure practical reason.

Categorical imperative

Therefore, we ought to act to avoid the known wrong—lying—rather than to avoid a potential wrong. All actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle, which are vastly different from each other; it is according to this that the moral worth of any action is judged. He is honored by it and so the duty is merely something he owes the other. For an individual to create values of their own, which is a key idea in Nietzsche's philosophy, they must be able to conceive of themselves as a unified agent. One symptom of the change was that mass society substitutes detached reflection for engaged passionate commitment. For Judge Wilhelm, the choice of normative ethics is a noncognitive choice of cognitivism, and thereby an acceptance of the applicability of the conceptual distinction between good and evil. Unlike Kant's benefactor who places the other in debt by an act of kindness, Kierkegaard supposes that the one who loves has an infinite debt because they are gripped by love. For Kierkegaard Christian faith is not a matter of regurgitating church dogma. Because he believed that virtue cannot be taught—a person is either virtuous or is not—he cast the proper place of morality as restraining and guiding people's behavior, rather than presenting unattainable universal laws. Sometimes Kierkegaard would publish more than one book on the same day. It presents the elusive warrant that justifies our assent to the doctrine, and thereby, also what justifies the Dialectic of Pure Practical Reason's having a more positive outcome than its theoretical counterpart. HGi will be that end, since it sets morality as the condition for happiness, and thus brings together these two ends into one, synthethizing them under a rule set by morality, namely that happiness ought to be distributed in accordance with moral worth. Schiller introduced the concept of the "beautiful soul," in which the rational and non-rational elements within a person are in such harmony that a person can be led entirely by his sensibility and inclinations. So, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, etc.

Pietism emphasised honesty and moral living over doctrinal beliefmore concerned with feeling than rationality. In this way, Kierkegaard is able to place love at the center of his thought.

immanuel kant ethics

According to Leibniz's Modal Argument, the existence of a contingent reality can only be ultimately explained through a cause whose existence is in itself necessary. The dead would be then be resurrected and live in a Kingdom of God on Earth. Kant further argues against both the Stoic and Epicurean models of how happiness and morality are related.

kant two types of love

For an individual to create values of their own, which is a key idea in Nietzsche's philosophy, they must be able to conceive of themselves as a unified agent. But the Christian cannot place love in the heart of another person.

Kant philosophy

After presenting a number of reasons that we might find acting out of duty objectionable, she argues that these problems only arise when people misconstrue what their duty is. However, this is not an argument that endures beyond the s. Unfortunately, however, there is considerable controversy about the specifics. But the duty associated with respect requires me to act rationally. As Kant no longer needs the Highest Good as the motivational basis for our observance of morality, it is recast as part of the architectonic of pure practical reason; and, likewise, the postulate of immortality gains a new function. This is because in addition to morality, finite rational beings also desire happiness. Accordingly, people have an obligation to act upon principles that a community of rational agents would accept as laws. This means that, by not addressing the tension between self-interest and morality, Kant's ethics cannot give humans any reason to be moral. That is, the leap of faith introduces divine love as a transcendent norm that lies beyond the moral demand to respect others as a limiting principle. It is thus the text most central to the negative elements of Kant's philosophy of religion and is integral to the widely held view that Kant is deeply hostile to faith. Kant also denied that the consequences of an act in any way contribute to the moral worth of that act, his reasoning being highly simplified for brevity that the physical world is outside our full control, and thus we cannot be held accountable for the events that occur in it. For example, a researcher who wished to perform tests on patients without their knowledge must be happy for all researchers to do so. Similar reasoning can be found in the Second and Third Critiques, in Religion, and in various essays of the s. He believed that masturbation is worse than suicide, reducing a person's status to below that of an animal; he argued that rape should be punished with castration and that bestiality requires expulsion from society.
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Søren Kierkegaard (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)